%A Ali, Waseem %A Bian, Yusheng %A Ali, Hina %A Sun, Jian %A Zhu, Jiaqiao %A Ma, Yonggang %A Liu, Zongping %A Zou, Hui %D 2023 %T Cadmium-induced impairment of spermatozoa development by reducing exosomal-MVBs secretion: a novel pathway %! Cadmium-induced impairment of spermatozoa development by reducing exosomal-MVBs secretion: a novel pathway %K cadmium, nano-scale exosome, MVBs, spermatozoa %X Cadmium is a heavy environmental pollutant that presents a high risk to male-fertility and targets the different cellular and steroidogenic supporting germ cells networks during spermatogenesis. However, the mechanism accounting for its toxicity in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) biogenesis, and exosomal secretion associated with spermatozoa remains obscure. In the current study, the light and electron microscopy revealed that, the Sertoli cells perform a dynamic role with secretion of well-developed early endosomes (Ee) and MVBs pathway associated with spermatozoa during spermatogenesis. In addition, some apical blebs containing nano-scale exosomes located on the cell surface and after fragmentation nano-scale exosomes were directly linked with spermatozoa in the luminal compartment of seminiferous tubules, indicating normal spermatogenesis. Controversially, the cadmium treated group showed limited and deformed spermatozoa with damaging acromion process and mid-peace, and the cytoplasmic vacuolization of spermatids. After cadmium treatment, there is very limited biogenesis of MVBs inside the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells, and no obvious secretions of nano-scale exosomes interacted with spermatozoa. Interestingly, the cadmium treated group demonstrated relatively higher formation of autophagosomes and autolysosome, and the autophagosomes were enveloped by MVBs that later formed the amphisome which degraded by lysosomes, indicating the hypo-spermatogenesis. Moreover, cadmium declined the exosomal protein cluster of differentiation (CD63) and increased the autophagy-related proteins microtubule-associated light chain (LC3), sequestosome 1 (P62) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) expression level were confirmed by Western blotting. These results provide rich information regarding how cadmium is capable of triggering impaired spermatozoa development during spermatogenesis by reduction of MVBs pathway through high activation of autophagic pathway. This study explores the toxicant effect of cadmium on nano-scale exosomes secretion interacting with spermatozoa. %U https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.204675 %J Aging %0 Journal Article %R 10.18632/aging.204675 %@ 1945-4589