%A Huang, Ling %A Zhong, Lifan %A Cheng, Ruxin %A Chang, Limei %A Qin, Mingyan %A Liang, Huaping %A Liao, Zhongkai %D 2023 %T Ferroptosis and WDFY4 as novel targets for immunotherapy of lung adenocarcinoma %! Ferroptosis and WDFY4 as novel targets for immunotherapy of lung adenocarcinoma %K Single Cell RNA-Sequencing, lung adenocarcinoma, WDFY4, immunotherapy, ferroptosis %X Background: Lung cancer exhibits the world’s highest mortality rate among malignant cancers worldwide, thereby presenting a significant global challenge in terms of reducing patient mortality. In the field of oncology, targeted immunotherapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic approach for lung cancer. This study aims to explore potential targets for immunotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) through the analysis of Ferroptosis Index (FPI) and Single Cell RNA-Sequencing (scRNA-seq) data. The findings of this research can potentially offer valuable insights for improving LUAD immunotherapy strategies and informing clinical decision-making. Methods: Firstly, the relationship between survival and ferroptosis in LUAD patients was analyzed by FPI. Subsequently, the association between ferroptosis and infiltration and regulation of immune cells was explored by immune infiltration analysis and correlation statistics. Lastly, the relationship between major infiltrating immune cell populations and related pathways and prognosis of LUAD patients was analyzed by GSEA and GSVA. To screen out core genes regulating infiltration of immune cell populations, scRNA-seq data of cancer and para-cancerous tissues of LUAD patients were downloaded, followed by cell clustering analysis, cell identification of core subpopulations, pseudotime analysis, single-cell GSVA and pathway enrichment analysis, and identification and functional analysis of core regulatory genes. Moreover, the expression levels of core functional genes in LUAD tissue microarray were detected by immunohistochemistry, and its relationship with the prognosis of LUAD patients was verified. Finally, we used lentivirus with WDFY4 to transfect LUAD A549 cells. CCK-8, flow cytometry apoptosis detection, Scratch wound healing assay, Transwell migration assay, Xenograft nude mice model, immunohistochemical analysis and other experimental methods were used to explore the biological effects of WDFY4 on LUAD in vitro and in vivo. Results: Survival analysis of FPI values in LUAD patients revealed a positive correlation between smaller FPI values and longer overall survival. Immuno-infiltration analysis and its correlation with FPI values revealed that B cells were most strongly associated with ferroptosis. Ferroptosis of cancer cells could promote infiltration and activation of B cell populations, and LUAD patients with more infiltration of B cell populations had longer long-term survival. scRNA-seq data analysis indicated that the B cell population is one of the major cell populations infiltrated by immune cells in LUAD. During the later phases of B cell differentiation in LUAD, there was a decrease in the expression levels of ACAP1, LINC00926, TLR10, MS4A1, WDFY4, and TRIM22 genes, whereas the expression levels of TMEM59, TP53INP1, and METTL7A genes were elevated. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis indicated that WDFY4 plays a crucial role in regulating B cell differentiation in LUAD. Immunohistochemical analysis of LUAD tissue microarray revealed a significant downregulation of WDFY4 expression, which was closely related to the occurrence sites of LUAD. Moreover, LUAD patients with a low WDFY4 expression exhibited a poorer prognosis. Additionally, experimental findings demonstrated that the overexpression of WDFY4 could inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of A549 cells while promoting apoptosis. It was also confirmed that WDFY4 could inhibit cancer growth in vivo. Conclusions: The results indicate that promoting infiltration and activation of B cell populations could improve the long-term survival of LUAD patients, thereby offering a potential novel immunotherapeutic approach for LUAD. Besides, the promotion of cancer cell ferroptosis and upregulation of WDFY4 expression have been shown to induce the infiltration and activation of B cell populations. Furthermore, the overexpression of WDFY4 can significantly inhibit the growth of lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo, highlighting its potential as a target for immunotherapy in LUAD. %U https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.205042 %J Aging %0 Journal Article %V 15 %N 18 %P 9676-9694 %R 10.18632/aging.205042 %@ 1945-4589