Review Volume 1, Issue 12 pp 961—970

Autophagy mediates pharmacological lifespan extension by spermidine and resveratrol


Figure 1. Molecular composition of the hypothetical autophagic switch. Irrespective of the primary stress signal, a homogeneous response would be obtained by the independent activation of molecular complexes organized around the IκB kinase (IKK), cytoplasmic p53, mTOR and Beclin 1. Within these complexes (and perhaps others), proteins would undergo reversible post-translational modifications and/or shuttle from one complex to another, thereby determining the function of the integrator/switch that activates autophagy. Please note that the autophagic switch is expected to contain several positive feedback loops that determine its (in)activation.