Figure 2. Hypothetical mode of action of resveratrol and spermidine as autophagy inducers. While resveratrol functions as an activator of the deacetylase Sirtuin 1, spermidine inhibits one or several histone acetylases. Therefore, both resveratrol and spermidine are expected to favor protein hypoacetylation. However, the autophagy-relevant substrates whose deacetylation is induced by resveratrol and spermidine are not fully characterized and it is even not known if they are completely distinct, partially overlapping or identical. For further details, please consult the main text.