Figure 1. Inflammatory-induced sarcopenia vs. cachexia. Sarcopenia and cachexia represent two distinct diseased states, though both can result from an imbalance in the body's inflammatory mechanisms. Whereas sarcopenia (blue) results from chronic inflammation associated with age, cachexia (orange) results from inflammation associated with a primary disease (e.g. cancer, AIDS, and sepsis). Although resulting from different overlying conditions, both sarcopenia and cachexia result in muscle atrophy and loss. The dramatic loss of skeletal muscle tissue, occurring gradually in sarcopenia and acutely in cachexia, leads to disability and increased mortality.