Review Volume 4, Issue 11 pp 734—741

Nutrient availability links mitochondria, apoptosis, and obesity


Figure 1. Mitochondrial structure. Mitochondrial membranes delimit the IMS and the matrix. This last compartment hosts the mitochondrial metabolic pathways, such as TAC cycle, β-oxidation and heme synthesis. MIM contains ETC complexes and ATP synthase. Complex I, III and IV extrude protons from the matrix in the IMS creating a proton gradient or mitochondrial membrane potential. The retrograde flux of ions promoted by complex V (ATP Synthase) liberates the energy necessary to phosphorylate ADP to ATP; upper inset. Fundamental for mitochondrial homeostasis and function are several exchange carries, such as the malate-aspartate shuttle in which cytosolic oxaloacetate is reduced to malate in a NADH-dependent reaction and malate is then imported in the mitochondrial matrix and oxidized back to oxaloacetate by malate dehydrogenase with the conversion of NAD+ to NADH; lower inset. α-KG, α-ketoglutarate; OAA, Oxaloacetate; Glu, Glutamate, cyt-c, cytochrome c.