Figure 1. Coordinated action of combined treatment with chemotherapy and vaccination. When a cancer patient is vaccinated with synthetic long peptides, these peptides are taken up, processed and presented by antigen presenting cells to T cells in the lymph node. These T cells proliferate and travel to the tumor where they recognize tumor antigen and produce effector molecules such as Granzyme B, IFN‐γ (pink circles) and TNFα (blue circles). At the same time, systemic chemotherapy treatment results in tumor cell death. Both individual treatments are rarely sufficient to cause complete tumor eradication. However, the combined action of TNFα and chemotherapy may result in synergistic cell death of tumor cells, resulting in enhanced survival of tumor bearing individuals.