Review Volume 7, Issue 12 pp 1032—1049

The PTEN tumor suppressor gene and its role in lymphoma pathogenesis


Figure 2. Mechanisms of PTEN regulation. PTEN is regulated at different levels. (A) PTEN mRNA transcription is activated by early growth response protein 1, P53, MYC, PPARγ, C-repeat binding factor 1, and others, and inhibited by NF-κB, proto-oncogene c-Jun, TGF-β, and BMI-1. (B) PTEN mRNA is also post-transcriptionally regulated by PTEN-targeting miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-17-92, and others. (C) Active site phosphorylation, ubiquitination, oxidation, acetylation, and protein-protein interactions can also regulate PTEN activity. The phosphorylation leads to a “closed” state of PTEN and maintains PTEN stability. Dephosphorylation of the C-terminal tail opens the PTEN phosphatase domain, thereby activating PTEN.