Figure 4. HMGB1 in placental membranes. (A) HMGB1 concentration in the cytoplasmic fraction of placental membranes from TL was marginally higher (P = .07) than from TNIL. (B) COX-2 expression was increased in myocytes (n=6) after HMGB1 treatment compared to controls. (C) Connexin-43 expression was not different after HMGB1 treatment in myocytes compared to control. (D-F) Inflammatory cytokine genes IL-6 (D) and TNFα (E) were increased, whereas no change was seen in IL-8 expression (F).