Research Paper Volume 8, Issue 3 pp 458—483

Vitamin C modulates the metabolic and cytokine profiles, alleviates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress, and increases the life span of Gulo−/− mice

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Figure 3. Principal component analysis (PCA) graph demonstrating the differentiation effect of ascorbate on the metabolomic profiles of wild type and Gulo−/− mice treated with different amounts of ascorbate.

X axis: Principal component 1, Y axis: Principal component 2. Wild type animals are labeled WT.1 to WT.6. Gulo−/− mice treated with 0.4% ascorbate in drinking water are labeled GV.1 to GV.6. Gulo−/− mice treated with 0.01% ascorbate are labeled G.1 to G.6. Gulo−/− mice treated with 0% ascorbate in drinking water from the age of three to four months are labeled GNV.1 to GNV.6.