Research Paper Volume 8, Issue 3 pp 458—483

Vitamin C modulates the metabolic and cytokine profiles, alleviates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress, and increases the life span of Gulo−/− mice

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Figure 8. Impact of ascorbate on the levels of different ER stress markers in the liver of Gulo−/− mice.

(A) Example of western blots showing protein levels of phosphorylated and total IRE1α, GRP78, phosphorylated and total PERK, phosphorylated and total eIF2α. β-actin was used as loading controls. (B) Ratio of phosphorylated IRE1α signal over β-actin signal from the western blots. (ANOVA: P > 0.05; but student t-test: *P < 0.05 for 0.4% ascorbate treated Gulo−/− mice vs. ascorbate depleted Gulo−/− mice). (C) Ratio of total IRE1α signal over β-actin signal from the western blots. (Tukey post ANOVA test: **P < 0.01 compared to all other mouse groups). (D) Ratio of phosphorylated PERK signal over β-actin signal from the western blots. (Tukey post ANOVA test: *P < 0.05 compared to ascorbate depleted Gulo−/− mice). (E) Ratio of total PERK signal over β-actin signal from the western blots. (Tukey post ANOVA test: *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 compared to type mice). (F) Ratio of phosphorylated eIF2α signal over β-actin signal from the western blots. (ANOVA: P > 0.05; but student t-test: *P < 0.05 for 0.4% ascorbate treated Gulo−/− mice vs. ascorbate depleted Gulo−/− mice). (G) Ratio of total IRE1α signal over β-actin signal from the western blots. (ANOVA: P > 0.05 but student t-test: *P < 0.05 for 0.01% ascorbate treated Gulo−/− mice vs. wild type mice). (H) Ratio of total GRP78 signal over β-actin signal from the western blots. No significant difference was found between groups (ANOVA: P > 0.05; student t-test P > 0.05). Bars in all histograms represent SEM of three mice.