Research Paper Volume 8, Issue 3 pp 521—533

Bacopaside I ameliorates cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice via immune-mediated clearance of β-amyloid


Figure 1. The chemical structure of BS-I (A) and Morris water maze test for BS-I and vehicle-treated APP/PS1 mice (WT controlled) (B to F). All mice were trained for 6 days (4 trials per day) to learn the location of a hidden platform in the MWM (B and C). Each point represents the mean length values of 4 trials per day. The swim path distance for the animals in the BS-I-treated groups were compared with those of vehicle-treated animals. Each mouse received a 70-second probe test of spatial memory retention on the 7th day (for 4 trials). In the probe trials, the BS-I-treated APP/PS1 mice swam longer in the target quadrant than the vehicle-treated APP/PS1 mice (D, E and F). APP/PS1/Vehicle group (Tg/Vehicle) compared with the wild-type control group (WT/Control), * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01; BS-I-treated groups compared with Tg/Vehicle group, ## p < 0.01. Error bars denote mean and the standard error of the mean (SEM), n = 9.