**Figure 2.** Fold change (±SD) in mRNA expression of (**a**) genes of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 in the Quadriceps muscle of C (all cancer patients), HE and HMA groups: HMA (n=22), HE (n=15), CWS (n=16), CWL (n=8). Fold-change of mRNA expression is relative to HMA participants. Statistical analysis was carried out on deltaCT values. Q-PCR shows upregulation of mRNA expression of TNF-α in HE (p<0.001) and in CWS (p<0.05) and IL-6 in CWS (p<0.05) compared with HMA and (**b**) illustrates protein analysis showing total NF-ĸB and pNF-ĸB in the Quadriceps muscle. Data are presented as P-NF-ĸB/total NFĸB ratio which was not significantly different for HE compared with C. The mean protein expression ± SEM were analysed for HE (n=8) and C (n=9) groups for P-NF-ĸB and C (n=9) and HE (n=9) groups for NF-ĸB. Neither total NF-ĸB nor pNF-kB were significantly different between the HE and C groups (p=0.291 and p=0.271 respectively).