Research Paper Volume 9, Issue 1 pp 114—132

Induction of fibroblast senescence generates a non-fibrogenic myofibroblast phenotype that differentially impacts on cancer prognosis

Figure 4. Senescence- and TGF-β1-induced myofibroblasts have divergent gene expression profiles. (A-B) RNA-sequencing analysis of HFFF2 cells treated with TGF-β1 (2 ng/ml) or irradiation (10Gy) and grown for 7 days. (A) Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the expression levels of differentially expressed genes (DEGs; FDR adj. p<0.001), identified using GLM likelihood ratio testing. Expression levels were subjected to Z score scaling within each sample for visualization purposes. Distances were calculated using a Euclidean distance measure. (B) Venn diagram showing the number of DEGs up- or downregulated in TGF-β1 and irradiated fibroblasts compared to controls. (C-E) RT-PCR measurements of mRNA expression levels of genes associated with myofibroblasts (C, E) and senescence (D) in HFFF2 cells used in the RNA-sequencing. Data are presented as mean ±SEM and statistics are shown for t-tests compared to control group. See also Supplementary Fig. S4.