Research Paper Volume 9, Issue 1 pp 142—155

Hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1 axis controls energy homeostasis in Middle-Aged Rodents: the reversal effects of physical exercise

Figure 2. Effects of chronic exercise in the hypothalamus of middle-aged mice. Experimental design (a).Body weight curve (b). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry analyses was performed to evaluate: area (c), body weight variation (d), fat mass variation (e) (n=3 per group). Cumulative food consumption (f), mean of food intake (g) (n=11 per group). Clams equipment were used to monitor: O2 consumption (h), CO2 production (i), heat rate (j) and ambulatory activity hours for hours during light and dark periods (k) and the mean ambulatory (l) in middle-aged exercised and at rest groups (n=3–4 per group). Analyses were made after the last day of training. Western blots of UCP1 protein levels in BAT (m); as well S1PR1 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus (n) (n=6 per group). The Student’s t-test was performed to evaluate data. ± SEM are shown in (e) **p<0.0017; (g) ***p<0.0001; (c,d,h,i and j) *p<0.05. For body weight, cumulative food intake and ambulatory activity point to point, as determined by Student´s t-test where (b) *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001, (f) *p<0.05, **p<0.01, (k) **p<0.01.