Figure 5. Anorexigenic effects of hypothalamic S1PR1 activation in middle-aged rats. 12 hours of food consumption after ICV injection of S1P (50 ng) (a) or SEW2871 (50 nM) (b) (n=5–6 per group), as analyzed by Student’s t-test. Western blot showing, STAT3tyr705 and AKTser473 phosphorylation in hypothalamic samples of Wistar rats 30 minutes after S1P injection (c) (n=6 per group). Western blot showing STAT3tyr705 phosphorylation. The samples were obtained 30 minutes after ICV SEW2871 injection (d) (n=6 per group). S1P levels (µM) of CSF in young rats at rest and after acute exercise, as analysed by Student’s t-test (e) (n=5 per group). Food intake (f) for 12 hours in middle-aged rats after ICV injection of CSF (2 µL) from young rats at rest and from young exercised rats in middle-aged rats (n=6–7 per group). The Student’s t-test where (a) *p<0.0229, (b) **p<0.0022, (e) ***p<0.0006. One-way ANOVA was used to (f) *** p<0.0001 vs ICV Saline Middle-Aged and ICV CSF Young Rest; *p<0.05 vs ICV CSF Young Exercised ---Middle-Aged.