Research Paper Volume 9, Issue 1 pp 256—285

Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures

Figure 10G-H. Effect of MSDK on RUNX2, β1 integrin, NFκB and metabolic proteins. Metabolic proteins such as PPARγ, GLUT4 and Insulin Rβ expression were also measured in (G) osteoblasts grown in transwell co-cultures and (H) in osteoblasts and osteoclasts grown in layered co-cultures. Cell lysates were prepared on day 21 from the bottom (osteoblasts) and top (osteoclasts) chambers in the transwell co-culture and from the whole plate (both osteoblast and osteoclast) in the layered co-culture. Protein levels were normalized against β-actin and then to Os-/MSDK. Mean protein levels were analyzed and compared between groups (Os-/MSDK, Os+/Veh, Os+/MSDK). *=p<.05, **=p<.01 and **=p<.001; One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post-hoc multiple comparison t-test (n=6 per group).