Research Paper Volume 9, Issue 1 pp 256—285

Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures

Figure 11. Effect of MSDK on adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) were exposed to MSDK for 7 days (A), 8 days (C) or 14 days (B) to assess its effects on alkaline phosphatase (A) or alizarin red staining (B, C). Red color indicates calcium deposition by MSCs. Each bar represents the mean absorbance of alkaline phosphatase activity or alizarin red at 490nm for respective groups Os+/Veh; Os+/GSK126; Os+/MSDK; Os+/GSK126/MSDK repeated twice in triplicate (except for the alizarin red experiment at day 8). GSK 126 = S-adenosyl-methionine-competitive small molecule inhibitor of EZH2 methyltransferase is known to promote osteogenic differentiation of MSCs through effects on the osteoblast epigenome [49,50]. The observed co-stimulatory effects of MSDK and GSK126 suggest mechanistic synergy.