Research Paper Volume 9, Issue 1 pp 256—285

Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures

Figure 2. Treatment effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in placebo and MSDK groups. Bone mineral density in the left femoral neck, total left hip and lumbar spine was measured via DXA (n=11 per group). Each bar represents the mean (± S.E.M.) change in bone mineral density (g/cm2) from baseline to month 12 in the (A) left femoral neck, (B) total left hip and (C) lumbar spine (L1-L4) area, respectively for placebo (open bar) and MSDK (closed bars). *p ≤ 0.05 and ***p ≤ 0.001 versus placebo, unpaired one tailed t-test with Welch’s correction.