Figure 2. Modulation of TEPs by the DLPFC-ICF paradigm in older adults. (A) The graph depicts TEP traces averaged across the older adults for subthreshold TMS (black dot line: CS), unconditioned TMS (red line: TS) and conditioned TMS (purple line: ICF; ISI = 10ms) at the left frontal ROI. (B) The illustration shows the EEG topographical plots for conditions of TS alone, ICF, and the difference between TS and ICF obtained from the DLPFC-ICF experiment. Each vertical column depicts the TEP topoplots for P30, N45, P60, N100, and P180 component from left to right. (C) The bar graph shows modulatory effects of the DLPFC-ICF on TEPs in the older adults. The ANOVA and post-hoc analyses revealed that there are significant modulations (p < 0.05) in N45, P60, and N100 TEPs with the DLPFC-ICF paradigm. (D) The bar graph showing cross-sectional comparisons between younger and older adults in the DLPFC-ICF paradigm. The older adults demonstrate a significant facilitation of amplitude on N45 TEP and a significant attenuation of amplitude on N100 TEP compared to the younger adults (p < 0.05).