Figure 5. Anterior horn of the spinal cord. Haematoxilin and eosin staining showing damaged neurons in ALS (a). Immunohistochemistry to TDP-43 showing skein-like intracytoplasmic inclusions (b), VDAC (c, d), GFAP (e, f), IBA-1 (g, h), CD68 (i, j), HLA-DRB1 (k, l), HLA-DRB5 (m, n), IL-10 (o, p), TNF-α (q, r) and GluT (SLC1A2) (s, t) in the anterior horn of the lumbar spinal cord in control (c, e, g, I, k, m, o, q, s) and sALS (a, b, d, f, h, j, l, n, p, r, t) cases. TDP-43-immunoreactive cytoplasmic inclusions are seen in motor neurons in sALS. GFAP is increased in reactive astrocytes; microglial cells have a round, amoeboid morphology as seen with IBA-1, CD-68, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DRB5 antibodies. VDAC immunoreactivity is decreased whereas IL-10 and TNF-α is increased in remaining motor neurons in sALS. SLC1A2 immunoreactivity is reduced in the membrane of neurons and in neuropil of the anterior horn in sALS. Paraffin sections, slightly counterstained with haematoxylin; a, c-d, o-t, bar in t = 40μm; e-n, bar in = 20μm; bar in b = 10μm.