Figure 5. Overview of possible influence of downregulation of miR-34a-3p on the TGF-β, Wnt and apoptotic signaling pathway. Activation (sharp arrows) or inhibition (blunt arrows) in normal signaling is indicated in black. Aberrant activation or inhibition, downregulation of miR-34a-3p and upregulation of target proteins is indicated in red. Deregulation of TGF-β pathway by overexpression of SMAD4 may increase cell proliferation, deregulation of Wnt pathway by overexpression of FRAT1 may increase cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. Overexpression of BCL2 may inhibit apoptosis. TGF-β: transforming growth factor β; LRP: low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein; GSK-3β: glycogen synthase kinase 3β; APC: adenomatous polyposis coli; TCF: T-cell factor; Cyto C: Cytochrome C; Apaf-1: apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1.