Figure 10. Pleiotropic effects of berberine on signaling pathways involved in cell growth. BBRs can induce many pathways which may result in suppression of cell growth, induction of apoptosis, autophagy, senescence, DNA double strand breaks or inhibition of cell cycle progression and DNA replication. These events are indicated by red arrows. In addition, BBR treatment can result in the suppression of many important proteins leading to decreased growth, decreased DNA synthesis, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle arrest and inflammation indicated in black closed arrows.