Research Paper Volume 9, Issue 7 pp 1677—1697

The Golgi-localized, gamma ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) protein family alters alpha synuclein (α-syn) oligomerization and secretion

Figure 5. GGA3 is expressed in the substantia nigra. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed on human post-mortem substantia nigra (SN) and cerebellum (CB) samples of PD patients and non-PD controls. mRNA levels of GGA3 were not altered in PD patients compared to controls (A). Western blot analysis of postmortem samples showed decreased GGA3 and α-syn protein levels in SN but not CB samples of PD patients compared to controls (B). A representative Western blot of n=4 blots is shown. Densitometric analysis and normalization to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels indicate that reduction in GGA3 levels are due to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SN of PD patients (C). PD protein levels of each blot were normalized to the non-PD protein levels of the corresponding blot. The mean fold changes over control ±SEM of n=4 blots is shown.