Research Paper Volume 9, Issue 8 pp 1926—1940

Chronic exercise reduces hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β1 in middle-aged obese mice

Figure 2. Effects of long-term of HFD on hypothalamic TGF-β1 accumulation and inflammatory genes in Middle-Age mice. Real time PCR assay of hypothalamic Tgf-β1 (A), Tnf-α, Il1-β, Tlr4, F4/80 (B) and Npy mRNA level (C) (n=4-7 per group). The animals were fasted for 8 hours before the hypothalamus extractions. Data are expressed as means ± SEM. *, p<0.05 vs Young control group and &, p<0.05 vs Middle-Age fed on chow diet.