Research Paper Volume 9, Issue 10 pp 2069—2082

Natural product celastrol suppressed macrophage M1 polarization against inflammation in diet-induced obese mice via regulating Nrf2/HO-1, MAP kinase and NF-κB pathways

Figure 1. Celastrol attenuated diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6N mice. (A) Celastrol promoted weight loss. Diet-induced obese mice were treated with celastrol (0, 5, 7.5 mg/kg/d) for 21 days, whereas control mice were fed with normal diet. Body weight was daily measured. (B) NMR determination of fat contents. After 21-day treatment, fat contents in mice were analyzed by Bruker minispec NMR analyzer. (C) Glucose tolerance test (GTT). After glucose injection, blood was collected and analyzed for glucose level. The area under curve (AUC) for each group was calculated. (D) Insulin tolerance test (ITT). After insulin injection, blood was collected and analyzed for glucose level. The AUC for each group was calculated. (E) Plasma level of IL-6. After 21-day treatment, plasma was isolated from mouse blood and measured by commercial mouse IL-6 ELISA kit. N=3; HFD, HFD only; C5, celastrol (5 mg/kg/d); C7.5, celastrol (7.5 mg/kg/d). (F) Plasma level of IL-1β. After 21-day treatment, plasma was isolated from mouse blood and measured by commercial mouse IL-1β ELISA kit. N=3; HFD, HFD only; C5, celastrol (5 mg/kg/d); C7.5, celastrol (7.5 mg/kg/d); **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001.