Figure 7. The possible mechanism of Cd2+-induced apoptosis in E. sinenesis testis. The oxidative stress and high-level death factors are triggered by Cd2+-induction. On the one hand, these changes initiate Caspase 8-mediated extrinsic pathway. On the other hand, p53 functions to repair DNA damage and participated in the mitochondrial pathway. All of these effects are contributive to the apoptosis of male germ cells after Cd2+ treatment in E. sinenesis.