Review Volume 10, Issue 8 pp 1825—1855

Remote ischemic conditioning: a promising therapeutic intervention for multi-organ protection

Figure 3. Simplified overview of the protective pathways of Remote Ischemic Conditioning (RIC). eNOS/PKG pathway is presented in gray, RISK pathway in yellow and green, and SAFE pathway in purple. Abbreviations: RISK, reperfusion injury salvage kinase; SAFE, survivor activating factor enhancement; SDF-1α, stromal cell derived factor-1α; IGF-1, insulin like growth factor-1; FGF-2: fibroblast growth factor-2; ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; IL-6, interleukin-6; IL-10, interleukin-10; CXCR4, chemokine 4 receptor; GFR, growth factor receptor; A1R, A3R, adenosine receptor A1, A3; δ/κ, δ- and κ- opioid receptor; B2R, bradykinin receptor B2; M3R, muscarinic receptor M3; NPR, natriuretic peptide receptor; TNFR, tumor necrosis factor receptor; gp130, glycoprotein 130; KATP, ATP-dependent potassium channel; Cx 43, connexin43; MEK1/2, also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2; Erk1/2, extracellular-regulated kinases 1/2; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate3-kinase; PIP3, phos-phatidylinositol-3, 4, 5-biphosphate; PDK, phosphatidylinositol kinase; Akt, also known as protein kinase B; P70s6K, p70 ribosomal protein s6 kinase; GSK3β, glycogen synthase kinase 3β; HIF-1α, hypoxia inducible factor-1α; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; PKA, protein kinase A; eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase; NO, nitric oxide; sGC, soluble guanylate cyclase; cGMP, cyclic guanine monophosphate; PKG, protein kinase G; PKC, protein kinase C; MPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; JKA, Janus kinase; STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, 3, 5; ROS, reactive oxygen species; miRNA, microRNA.