Figure 5. Clinical trials of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) on multi-organ protection. (A) Studies of RIC effects on the brain, (B) studies of RIC effects on the kidney, (C) and (D) studies of RIC effects on the heart. Abbreviations: CSVD, cerebral small vessel disease; TBI, traumatic brain injury; CEA, carotid endarterectomy; CAS, carotid angioplasty and stenting; sIAS, symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis; SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage; AIS, acute ischemic stroke; MFV, mean flow velocity; MCA, middle cerebral artery; DHI, dizziness handicap inventory; WMLs, white matter lesions; NSE, neuron-specific enolase; S-100B, S100 calcium binding protein B; mRS, modified Rankin scale; CBF, cerebral blood flow; GW exp. and methy. change, genome-wide expression and methylation change; ICP, intracranial pressure; SPCI, selective percutaneous coronary intervention; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft surgery; HD, hemodialysis; DDR, deceased donor renal; DCDR, donation after cardiac death renal; LDR, living-donor renal; ARD, acute renal dysfunction; CIN, contrast-induced nephropathy; tCr50, the estimated time to a 50% decrease in baseline plasma creatinine; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; PPCI, primary percutaneous coronary intervention; HHF, hospitalization for heart failure; MS, myocardial salvage; MI, myocardial infarction; hs-cTnT, high sensitive-cardiac troponin T; hs-cTnI, high sensitive-cardiac troponin I; MACCE, major adverse cardiac and cerebral event; CK, creatine kinase; CK-MB, creatine kinase-myocardial band; RF, renal failure.