Figure 1. Fasting glucose and insulin in blood. Survivors until 15 months of age were included for the Pre-Post comparison (Vehicle: N = 43; MSC lysate: N = 39), measured at 9 months and 15 months of age. Differences in glucose (A) and insulin (B) between the Vehicle and MSC lysate groups did not reach statistical significance after 2 sessions of MSC lysate treatment. However, insulin resistance index (product of fasting glucose and insulin) was moderately decreased in the MSC lysate group, but no change was observed in the Vehicle group (C). Blood glucose concentrations during insulin tolerance test (insulin injection at 0.3 U/kg body weight) of the MSC lysate group was marginally lower than those of the Vehicle group, after 5 sessions of MSC lysate treatment (Vehicle: N = 27; MSC lysate: N = 24) (main effect of treatment of two-way ANOVA: p = 0.06) (D). † Significant difference against pre-treatment value (9 months of age), p ≤ 0.05. Data for male and female rats are presented separately in Supplementary figures (Figure S1_Male and S1_Female). Abbreviation: MSC, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell.