Figure 5. Cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous actions of daf-16 in the muscle and nervous system of daf-2 mutant animals. Transgenes expressing daf-16 in either the muscle or nervous system were introduced into a daf-2 daf-16 mutant and the effects on mobility as shown by thrashing behavior in liquid was assessed. Shown are bar graphs depicting either the average number of body bends (A) or relative speed (B) over a 30 second period by adult day 5 daf-2, daf-2 daf-16, or daf-2 daf-16 mutants with daf-16 restored in the muscle (+muscle) or neurons (+nerve). N = 12 for all genotypes. * represents p < 0.05 by t‐test. Moreover, the rescue of daf-16 in the muscle (C), but not the neurons (D), is able to restore the increased mitochondrial activity of the daf-2 daf-16 mutants as shown by treatment with increasing doses of the mitochondrial inhibitor sodium azide. N = 60 - 70 worms per genotype and treatment. * represents p < 0.05 by t‐test. (E) While the rescue of daf-16 in both the muscle and neurons increased mitochondrial mass, only rescue in the muscle (+muscle) improved mitochondrial structure in day 5 animals compared to daf-2 daf-16 mutants or animals with daf-16 restored in the nervous system (+nerve) as shown by confocal images of muscle mitochondria.