Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 11 pp 3445—3462

N-acetyl cysteine, inulin and the two as a combined therapy ameliorate cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived rats

Figure 4. The effects of NAC, inulin and combined therapy on astrocyte morphology in rats with testosterone deprivation. (A-F) Representative images of GFAP and DAPI immunofluorescence under confocal microscopy at CA1 of the hippocampus of NDS, NDO, NDOT, NDON, NDOI, and NDOC respectively (bar = 50 𝜇m). (G) Size of astrocyte cells as indicated by GFAP positive cell volume. (H) Length of astrocyte processes as indicated by GFAP positive cells processes length. (I) Mean fluorescent intensity of GFAP positive cells. (J) Number of astrocyte cells as indicated by number of GFAP positive cells. (K-L) The ramification of astrocyte cells as indicated by Sholl analysis and area under the curve of GFAP intersection respectively. NDS: rats with sham operation; NDO: rats with orchiectomy; NDOT: rats with orchiectomy receiving testosterone replacement; NDON: rats with orchiectomy receiving NAC treatment; NDOI: rats with orchiectomy receiving inulin treatment; NDOC: rats with orchiectomy receiving the combined therapy (the combination of NAC and inulin) (N=6 of each group) *p<0.05 in comparison with the NDS, †p<0.05 in comparison with the NDS.