Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 11 pp 3463—3486

CA-30, an oligosaccharide fraction derived from Liuwei Dihuang decoction, ameliorates cognitive deterioration via the intestinal microbiome in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 strain

Figure 2. CA-30 improved cognitive impairments in SAMP8 mice. The preferential index (time on novel object C/(time on novel object C+time on sample object A)×100%) after 1 hr (A) and 24 hr (B) of training in the testing phase of the novel object recognition test. Latency to animals’ first crossing the platform location during hidden-platform training (C). Time spent swimming in the target quadrant during the probe trial (D). Successful avoidance times in the training (E) and testing sessions (F) *P<0.05, ***P<0.001, versus the SAMR1 mice, #P<0.05, ##P<0.01, ###P<0.001, versus the SAMP8 mice by unpaired Student's t-tests and two-way repeated-measures analyses of variance with Tukey multiple comparisons tests. All values are means ± S.D. n=9-11.