Priority Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 11 pp 3418—3431

α-Ketoglutarate inhibits autophagy

Figure 1. Metabolic effects of α-ketoglutarate precursors. (A, B) Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of intracellular metabolites in U2OS cells treated with the α-ketoglutarate precursors dimethyl α-ketoglutarate (DMKG), trifluoromethylbenzyl α-ketoglutarate (TFMKG) and octyl α-ketoglutarate (O-KG) in complete (CM) (A) or nutrient free (NF) medium (B) for 4 h at the concentrations indicated in the Experimental Procedure section. Heat maps depict log2 fold changes to the control of metabolite signals found altered (False Discovery Rate [FDR]< 0.1) upon incubation with α-ketoglutarate precursors. (C-E) Impact of α-ketoglutarate precursors on intracellular levels of α-ketoglutarate (C) and the energy related metabolites AcetylCoA (D) and ATP (E). Data represent averaged log2 fold change ± S.E.M. to the controls (CM or NF). *** p < 0.001; ** p< 0.01 (unpaired t test).