Figure 5. Blue light exposure of A2E-treated ARPE-19 cells increased HMGB1 and Caveolin-1 expression. (A) Western blot assay for HMGB1 and Caveolin-1 in RPE cells treated with a concentration gradient of A2E with or without blue light, quantified by densitometry, and the results are expressed as a ratio with β-actin. Data are presented as means ± SD; * indicates a p value < 0.05, ** indicates a p value < 0.01, n=3. (B) Representative microscopic images of β-galactosidase staining in RPE cells with various concentrations of A2E. Quantification of percentage of cells with positive SA-β-gal staining.Data are presented as means ± SD; * indicates a p value < 0.05, ** indicates a p value < 0.01, n=3. (C) The release of HMGB1 induced by A2E treatment were detected by ELISA assays.