Figure 3. Energy production by naïve B cells undergoing activation. Naïve B cells isolated from PBMCs of younger (circles) or aged (squares) individuals were cultured for 24 hours with (closed symbols) or without (open symbols) polyclonal activators and then tested by Seahorse for glycolysis (A) or respiration (B). After 3 measurements at baseline oligomycin was added to determine glycolytic capacity and proton leak. After 3 measurements carbonyl cyanide-4-phenylhydrazone (FCCP) was added to maximal respiration. Thereafter Rotenone and Antimycin A were added to measure non-mitochondrial respiration. Data for oxygen consumption rates (OCR) were used to calculate ATP production as basal respiration minus proton leak (C) and spare respiratory capacity as maximal respiration minus non-mitochondrial respiration (D).