Figure 2. Ketones increase the NAD+/ NADH ratio and ATP levels in ApoE 4 mice. ApoE4 and ApoE3 mice were treated with either ketones or normal saline for three months. Fresh hippocampal and cortical tissues were collected to measure NAD, NADH and ATP levels. (A) the NAD+/ NADH ratio in the hippocampus; (B) the NAD+/ NADH ratio in the cortex; (C) ATP levels in the hippocampus; (D) ATP levels in the cortex. N= 6–8 per group, # p<0.05, ApoE3-NS vs. ApoE4-NS. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, ApoE3-NS vs. ApoE3-Ket, ApoE4-NS vs. ApoE4-Ket.