Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 15 pp 5548—5569

Ginseng increases Klotho expression by FoxO3-mediated manganese superoxide dismutase in a mouse model of tacrolimus-induced renal injury

Figure 11. Effect of KRGP treatment on Tac-induced impairment of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate in HK-2 cells. HK-2 cells were seeded in culture plates at 90% confluence. On the next day, the cells were treated with Tac (50 μg/mL) in the absence or presence of 10 μg/mL KRGP and 25 μM LY294002 (LY, PI3K inhibitor). After a 12-h treatment, the cells were incubated in a non-CO2 incubator for 1 h. Next, the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin, the uncoupler FCCP, or the respiratory chain complex I and III inhibitor rotenone/antimycin A was added to the culture medium, as indicated (A). The areas under the curve for basal respiration (B), maximal respiration (C), ATP-linked respiration (D), reserve capacity (E), proton leak (F), and non-mitochondrial respiration (G) were calculated from OCR. Data are presented as mean ± SE and are representative of at least three independent experiments. #P < 0.05.