Figure 8. Effect of KRGP treatment on Tac-induced ROS production in HK-2 cells. HK-2 cells were seeded in a culture plate at 90% confluence. On the next day, the cells were treated with Tac (50 μg/mL) in the absence or presence of 10 μg/mL KRGP and 25 μM LY294002 (LY, PI3K inhibitor) for 12 h. The cells were exposed in DCF-DA or MitoSOX Red, and then analyzed by flow cytometry. (A and B) Flow cytometry plots and a quantitative graph of DCF-DA fluorescence for detecting total ROS. (C and D) Flow cytometry plots and a quantitative graph of MitoSOX Red fluorescence for detecting mitochondrial ROS (O2-). Data are presented as mean ± SE and are representative of at least three independent experiments. #P < 0.05.