Figure 9. Effect of KRGP treatment on Tac-induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. HK-2 cells were seeded in a culture plate at 90% confluence. On the next day, the cells were treated with Tac (50 μg/mL) in the absence or presence of 10 μg/mL KRGP and 25 μM LY294002 (LY, PI3K inhibitor) for 12 h. The cells were exposed to MitoTracker or Annexin V-FITC and PI, and then analyzed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. (A and B) MitoTracker staining to detect the number of mitochondria by confocal microscopy. (C and D) Flow cytometry histograms and a graph of annexin V and PI labeling. Data are presented as mean ± SE and are representative of at least three independent experiments. #P < 0.05.