Figure 1. Effects of antibiotic treatment on gut microbiota diversity. (A) Treatment schedule. Adult mice received drinking water with or without antibiotic cocktail from day 1 to day 14. On day 15, MPTP or saline injections were administered. On day 22, fresh feces were collected. Mice were then perfused for immunohistochemistry. (B) Body weights in the different groups (repeated two-way ANOVA, antibiotic: F1,36 = 20.549, P < 0.001; MPTP: F1,36 = 0.005, P = 0.994; interaction (antibiotic × MPTP): F1,36 = 0.045, P = 0.833). (C) Representative images of DAT immunohistochemistry in the water + saline, water + MPTP, antibiotic + saline, and antibiotic + MPTP groups. (D) Striatal DAT immunoreactivity data. (E) Representative images of TH immunohistochemistry in the water + saline, water + MPTP, antibiotic + saline, and antibiotic + MPTP groups. (F) SNr TH immunoreactivity data. Data are shown as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 10). ***P < 0.001. Bar = 50 μm.