Review Volume 11, Issue 17 pp 7307—7327

Metabolic remodeling induced by mitokines in heart failure

Figure 1. Small molecules arising from the mitochondria served as cellular and systemic signals. ATP: adenosine triphosphate; ADP: adenosine diphosphate; AMP: adenosine monophosphate; AMPK: 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase; CaU: calcium uniporter; e-: electron; HIF-1α: hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha; IL-1β: interleukin 1 beta; mtDNA: mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid; MOMP: mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization; MPTP: mitochondrial permeability transition pore; NLRP3: nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors pyrin domain containing 3; NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; NADH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; OS: oxidative stress; Q: ubiquinone; QH2: ubiquinol; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SIRT1: sirtuin1; SIRT3: sirtuin3; SIRT6: sirtuin6; SDH: succinate dehydrogenase.