Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 18 pp 7723—7745

Neural stem cell small extracellular vesicle-based delivery of 14-3-3t reduces apoptosis and neuroinflammation following traumatic spinal cord injury by enhancing autophagy by targeting Beclin-1

Figure 2. Overexpression of 14-3-3t increased autophagic activity in neuron cells. Neuronal cells were treated with PBS, Ad-GFP-sEVs, and Ad-14-3-3t-sEVs for 24 h, followed by treatment with Glu for 24 h. (A, B) Western blot assay for 14-3-3t expression in Ad-GFP-sEVs and Ad-14-3-3t-sEVs. (C) Western blot analyses of the expression of 14-3-3t and LC3B in neuronal cells. (D, E) Semi-quantitative detection of expression levels of 14-3-3t and LC3B, normalized to GAPDH. (F, G) Representative images of autophagosomes by TEM in neuronal cells. Scale bar = 2um. * p < 0.05, compared to the Glu group; # p < 0.05, compared to the Ad-GFP-sEVs group. GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Glu, glutamate.