Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 18 pp 7723—7745

Neural stem cell small extracellular vesicle-based delivery of 14-3-3t reduces apoptosis and neuroinflammation following traumatic spinal cord injury by enhancing autophagy by targeting Beclin-1

Figure 5. Overexpression of 14-3-3t enhances the anti-inflammatory effect of NSC-sEVs in rats with spinal cord injury. (AC) ELISA was used to detect the expression levels of TNF-a, IL-1β and IL-6 in cerebral fluids. (D) Western blot detection of post-traumatic inflammation-related proteins. (EG) Semi-quantitative detection of inflammation-related protein levels. (H) Representative immunohistochemical staining images of CD68 (red) and GFAP (green) on day 3 after spinal cord injury in the SCI and NSC-sEVs groups. All cell nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). Scale bar = 1000 or 200um. (I) Analysis of the number of CD68+ microglia in the traumatic injury area. * p < 0.05, compared to the SCI group; # p < 0.05, compared to the Ad-GFP-sEVs group. NSC-sEVs, neural stem cell-derived small extracellular vesicles; DAPI, 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; SCI, spinal cord injury; TNF-a, tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-1β, interleukin-1β; IL-6, interleukin-6.