Figure 5. Effects of compound 33 on LPS-induced increases in proinflammatory marker and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in RAW 264.7 cells. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 12 h after pretreatment with 2.5, 5, or 10 μM compound 33. Total RNA was extracted and (A–C) proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels were assayed. (D) Intracellular ROS level was assessed using loro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate. (E) iNOS and (F) COX2 protein levels in RAW264.7 cells as determined using Western blotting. Data are presented as means ± SEM (n = 3–6). # P <0.05, ## P <0.01, compared to the control group. * P <0.05, ** P <0.01, compared to the LPS group.