Figure 6. Effects of compound 33 on the NF-κB and HO-1/Nrf2 signaling pathways in vitro. RAW264.7 cells were treated with LPS for 1 h after pretreatment with 2.5, 5, or 10 μM compound 33. Protein levels were determined using Western blotting, and (A) p-P38/P38, (B) P-ERK/ERK, (C) p-JNK/JNK, (D) p-IκBα/IκBα, and (E) p-P65/P65 expression was quantified. (F) Nuclear translocation of NF-κB P65 visualized using immunofluorescence staining. Cells were pretreated with 2.5, 5, or 10 μM compound 33 or dimethyl sulfoxide for 1 h, and then exposed to LPS for 12 h. (G) Nrf2 and (H) HO-1 protein levels in cell lysates were analyzed; GAPDH was used as the control. Data are presented as means ± SEM (n = 3–6). # P <0.05, ## P <0.01, compared to the control group. * P <0.05, ** P <0.01, for comparisons with the LPS group.