Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 21 pp 9875—9892

Promising therapeutic effect of thapsigargin nanoparticles on chronic kidney disease through the activation of Nrf2 and FoxO1

Figure 6. Serum biochemistry parameters and direct observations of the kidneys in an adenine-induced CKD model following TG NP and KIM-1-TG NP treatment. (A) (B) Analysis of serum biochemistry parameters. Creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were assessed after TG NP or KIM-1-TG NP injection. *p < 0.05, normal versus CKD. #p < 0.05 versus CKD. $p < 0.05, CKD+TH versus CKD+KTH. (C) Images of an entire kidney. After the experiments, the mice were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed. N indicates normal group. CKD indicates that mice are adenine-fed and intraperitoneally injected saline. TL indicates low-concentration (0.1 mg/kg) TG NP group. TH indicates high-concentration (0.2 mg/kg) TG NP. KTL indicates low-concentration (0.1 mg/kg) KIM-1-TG NP group. KTH indicates high-concentration (0.2 mg/kg) KIM-1-TG NP group. Details of the mouse model are described in “Materials and Methods”.