Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 21 pp 9875—9892

Promising therapeutic effect of thapsigargin nanoparticles on chronic kidney disease through the activation of Nrf2 and FoxO1

Figure 8. Schematic model of how TG NPs ameliorate CKD progression. TG NPs could induce the UPR pathway in kidney cells. Furthermore, TG NPs protected kidney cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death through the activation of Nrf2 and FoxO1. In addition, TG NPs induced autophagy that may inhibit CKD progression.