Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 24 pp 11922—11936

Suppression of protein degradation by leucine requires its conversion to β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate in C2C12 myotubes

Figure 1. Effects of Leu (0.5 mM or 10 mM), KIC (0.5 mM or 10 mM), and HMB (50 μM) on (A) protein degradation, (B) media 3-MeHis, (C) MAFbx protein expression, (D) MuRF1 protein expression, and (E) cell apoptosis in C2C12 myotubes. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. Different letters (a, b, c) indicated significant differences (P < 0.05). CON, control; HMB, β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate; KIC, α-ketoisocaproate; Leu, leucine.