Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 24 pp 12080—12096

Age-related changes in microbial composition and function in cynomolgus macaques

Figure 5. Age-related microbial functions in CAZymes and food utilization. Different CAZymes identified using LEfSe analysis of the metagenomic sequences (LDA>2.0). (A) Heatmap of the abundances of different CAZymes. CAZymes (raw) were sorted by taxa and enriched group, and samples (column) were sorted by age. The intensity of color (blue to red) indicates the score normalized abundance for each enzyme. (B) The ratio of CAZymes represented within the metagenomes related to plant and animal carbohydrate utilization (left) or the ratio of mucin glycan to plant carbohydrate utilization (right) in the cynomolgus macaques. The boxplot distributions were tested using the nonparametric two-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test. (C) Boxplot for the marked CAZymes in different age groups. Representative CAZymes were classified into pathways for starch (left) and microbial peptidoglycan (right). The abundances of different CAZymes were calculated by the log RPKM. LEfSe detected the features with significantly different abundances using the Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test, and LDA was performed to evaluate the effect size of each feature. *P<0.05, **P<0.01.